2.1: Antibiotic treatments.

If the activity of an antimicrobial compound depends on its mechanism of action, antibiotics often present pleiotropic actions. In addition to their « classical » antibacterial action, some antibacterial molecules seem to be able to modulate the immune response, either directly by altering the bacterial cell (virulence factor) or indirectly by its action on different immune cells (cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, chemotactism). Using mostly the model of mouse experimental pneumonia, we investigate the role of antibiotics in the modulation of the innate immune response during hospital-acquired lung infections. As of today, the clinical impact of the immunomodulatory role of antibiotics remains poorly explored.

Group leader: C. Jacqueline / J. Caillon

2.2: Therapeutic bacteriophages.

Highly-resistant bacteria constitute a major therapeutic challenge. New antibiotics are scarce and their use frequently induce the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. In this context, the search for alternative treatments is essential. Phage therapy, forgotten in our countries since the second world war, offers interesting therapeutic perspectives. Our group studies the antibacterial action of bacteriophages using in vivo experimental models, and their impact on the immune response to bacterial infection.

Group leader: D. Boutoille / C. Jacqueline

2.3: Evaluation of immune adjuvants to decrease the incidence of infectious complications in post-traumatic immune suppression.

After an acute stress (brain injury, septic shock,....), a systemic immune suppression is largely responsible for hospital acquired infections generating a high human and financial cost. Vaccine adjuvants have been mostly used in cancer research (TLR agonists), and constitute promising new development fields. Other targets are being evaluated on animal models and cell patients from our hospital tissue collections. This research is aimed at developing new strategies to prevent nosocomial infections in patients undergoing severe trauma.

Group leader: K. Asehnoune / A. Roquilly